of American Law Schools
Statistical Report on Law School Faculty
And Candidates for Law Faculty Positions
C O N T E N T S
All Full-Time Faculty in the 2000-2001 Directory of Law Teachers
The AALS Directory of Law Teachers, 2000-2001 includes demographic information on the 9,073 full-time faculty members of 184 law schools. The 162 AALS member and 22 fee-paid law schools include all of the law schools on the approved list of the American Bar Association. Table 1A shows the gender and minority composition of that group within 12 faculty title categories. The first column shows the “total number” of faculty in each of the title groups and the second column indicates the percentages of those numbers that are women. The numbers with ethnic/racial information available are shown in the third column and the percentages with missing ethnic data are shown in the fourth column. The minority and minority-gender percentages are calculated in terms of the faculty for whom ethnic/racial information is available.
Table 1B shows the distribution of the faculty across five ethnic groups, American Indian (Alaskan Native), Asian (Pacific Islander), Black, Hispanic, and White. Persons belonging to more than one ethnic/racial group are included in the "Other Minority" category.
Women and Minority Faculty: Six-Year Comparison
Table 2A shows the numbers and percentages of women faculty for the past six years. The total number and percentage of women in each year’s Directory are shown in the last row of the table. In 1995-96, 2,497 (29.6%) of the faculty in the Directory were women. Both the number and percentage increased steadily over the six-year period. In 2000-2001, there were 2,948 women, representing 32.5 percent of the faculty. For the first four years in the comparison, over half of the assistant professors were women. In 1999-2000, the percentage of women assistant professors dropped to 48.0 percent, but in 2000-2001 the percentage rose to 49.4 percent. The percentage of women associate professors increased from 41.8 percent in 1995-96 to 46.5 percent in 2000-2001; and the percentage of women professors increased from 18.1 percent to 22.9 percent over the same period.
Table 2B compares the numbers and percentages of minority faculty for the past six years. The overall minority percentage rose from 12.8 percent in 1995-96 to 13.8 percent in 2000-2001. Over the six year period, the percentage of minority associate professors rose from 24.4 percent in 1995-96 to 25.4 percent in 1998-99 and then dropped over the next two years to 24.1 percent in 2000-2001. The percentage of minority assistant professors dropped steadily from 28.0 percent in 1995-96 to 25.5 percent in 1998-99, rose in 1999-2000 to 27.4 percent, and then dropped back to 26.5 percent in 2000-2001.
New Faculty in the 2000-2001 Directory of Law Teachers
Four hundred nine (409) new faculty are listed in the 2000-2001 Directory; i.e., they were not listed in the previous year. This does not include new assistant and associate deans and excludes all faculty at The Judge Advocate General’s School. Table 3A categorizes the new faculty by title and shows minority and gender composition. More than half (52.8%) are women and 18.0 percent of those for whom ethnic/racial information is available belong to a minority group. Note that racial/ethnic information is missing for 43.0 percent of the new faculty.
The new lecturers and instructors have a higher percentage of women (67.5%). Minority percentages are highest for new visiting professors (24.1%), followed by assistant professors (21.0%), professors (15.8%), associate professors (15.4%), and lecturers/instructors (13.8%). Note the high percentage of missing ethnic data for professors (53.7%) and visiting professors (57.4%).
Table 3B shows the new law faculty composition by title, gender, and ethnic group. The ethnic group composition of all new faculty (with ethnic information) is 1.7 percent American Indian or Alaskan Native, 2.1 percent Asian or Pacific Islander, 8.6 percent Black, 3.4 percent Hispanic, 2.1 percent other minority, and 82.0 percent White.
New Law Faculty: Six Year Comparison
Table 4 shows the gender and minority composition of the cohort of new law faculty in each of the past six years. Overall, the percentage of women has been fairly stable, averaging 49.5 percent over the six years and ranging from 44.3 percent to 52.9 percent. The percentage of new faculty belonging to minority ethnic/racial groups dropped in 1997-98 to 17.0 percent after ranging from 21.3 percent to 25.2 percent in the previous three years and then rose to 23.2 percent in 1998-99, dropped to 21.8 percent in 1999-2000, and dropped further to 18.0 percent in 2000-2001. For new women faculty, the highest percentage was in 1994-95 and the lowest was in 1996-97. For new minority faculty, the highest percentage was in 1995-96 and the lowest was in 1997-98. In all six years, the percentage of new lecturers and instructors who were women was significantly higher than for the other title groups.
Candidates in the AALS Faculty Appointments Register, 2000-2001
Table 5A shows the gender composition of the 769 candidates for law faculty positions who had resumes in the 2000-2001 Faculty Appointments Register. Some candidates are in both a fall and winter distribution of the Register, but are counted only once in these statistics. Two hundred twenty-seven (30.0%) of the candidates who provided gender information are women.
Table 5B shows the number of candidates by ethnic/racial group and gender. Overall, 20.3 percent of those who reported ethnic/racial origin belong to a minority group, 23.5 percent of the women and 18.9 percent of the men.
Faculty Appointments Register Candidates, 1995-96 through 2000-2001
Tables 6A and 6B provide a six year comparison of the gender and ethnic/minority group composition of the pools of candidates listed in the Faculty Appointments Register. Both gender and minority percentages have been relatively stable. The percentage of women was highest (37.2%) in 1995-96 and lowest (30.0%) in 2000-2001. The minority percentage reached its high of 21.6 percent in 1997-98; it has varied only slightly over the last five years, ranging between 20.3 percent and 21.6 percent.
Success Rates of Faculty Appointments Register Candidates, 1995-96 through 1999-2000
The numbers of successful candidates shown in Table 7A represent those Faculty Appointments Register candidates from each of the five years who were listed in the following year’s Directory of Law Teachers. In the past ten years, the highest success rate for Register candidates was in 19990-91 when 12.9 percent of the candidates were successful; in 1994-95, 12.0 percent were successful (not shown in this table). The success rate dropped in the next two years; 105 (9.8%) of the 1995-96 candidates and 69 (7.2%) of the 1996-97 candidates were listed in the following year’s Directory. The success rate rose to 11.6 percent for the 1997-98 candidates and slightly higher to 11.8 percent for the 1998-99 candidates (nearly as high as the 1994-95 rate), and remained about the same (11.6%) for the 1999-2000 candidates. The overall success rate for the five years is 10.3 percent.
Table 7B provides a five-year comparison of the composition and success rates of Register candidates by gender. [The “category percentage” columns show the gender composition of “all candidates” and “successful candidates.” Note that the gender data are more complete in this section due to the additional information on the successful candidates provided in the Directory database.]
Success rates of women candidates were higher than those of men candidates during the years 1990-91 through 1994-95 (not shown in the table). The 1994-95 difference was statistically significant (Chi-square test, P≤.05). This trend reversed for the 1995-96 candidates with only 9.4 percent of the women successful, compared to 11.2 percent of the men, not a statistically significant difference, but a significant shift in a well established trend. In 1996-97, women candidates again were more successful than men, but by only a small margin (8.2% for women compared to 7.7% for men). In 1997-98, 1998-99, and 1999-2000, the percentage of women candidates remained higher than that of men, but the success rate differences were not statistically significant.
Table 7C compares the success rates of minority candidates to nonminority candidates. The success rate of minority candidates rose dramatically to 27.5 percent in 1994-95 (not shown in the table), following three years of steady declines, and then dropped back to 14.6 percent for the 1995-96 minority candidates and still further to 11.1 percent for the 1996-97 candidates. The success rate of nonminority candidates had been relatively stable at about 10 percent until the drop to 7.9 percent for the 1996-97 candidates. The differences in minority and nonminority success rates were statistically significant only in 1994-95 (Chi-square test, P≤.05). The 1997-98 data show a shift in the previously well-established pattern that minority candidates had higher success rates than nonminority candidates; 14.5 percent of the nonminority candidates compared to 9.9 percent of the minority candidates were successful. The 1997-98 rate difference is not statistically significant, but the shift from the pattern of previous years is important to note. In 1998-99, the success rate of minority candidates (16.3%) again was higher than the rate for nonminority candidates (13.2%) and in 1999-2000, the comparison is similar, showing the success rate for minority candidates (15.4%) higher than that of nonminority candidates (11.6%); these differences are not statistically significant.
Table 7D shows the success rates of candidates according to ethnic/racial categories. The American Indian/Alaskan Native group is too small for meaningful comparison. Among the three comparable minority groups (Asian, Black, and Hispanic), Asians had the highest success rate in four of the five years (1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98, and 1998-99). In 1999-2000 Hispanic candidates were most successful. White candidates had the lowest success rate in 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1999-2000; and Hispanic candidates had the lowest success rate in 1997-98 and 1998-99. For all five years combined, White candidates had the lowest success rate (11.3%) and Asian candidates had the highest (20.0%). In 1994-95 (not shown in the table), the three comparable minority groups all had significantly higher success rates than the White group (Chi-square test, P≤.05). Although, in 1995-96, Asian, Black, and Hispanic success rates also were higher than the rate for White candidates, the differences are not statistically significant. In 1996-97, the success rate for Asian candidates (19.4%) was significantly higher than the rate for white candidates. In 1997-98 there was a shift and White candidates had a higher rate (14.5%) than both Black (8.2%) and Hispanic (4.8%) candidates; Asians had the highest success rate (16.0%). None of the 1997-98 rate differences are statistically significant. Similarly, in 1998-99 White candidates had a higher rate (13.2%) than both Black (11.9%) and Hispanic (11.1%) candidates with Asians having the highest rate (28.6%). The Asian success rate in 1998-99 was again significantly higher than the rate for White candidates (Chi-square test, P≤.05). In 1999-2000, Asian, Black, and Hispanic success rates were higher than that of White candidates, but the differences were not statistically significant. For all five years combined, the success rates for Asian (20.0%) candidates is significantly higher than the rate for Black (11.8%) and White (11.3%) candidates (Chi-square test, P≤.05).
Success rates of Register candidates are shown by minority/nonminority-gender group in Table 7E. Comparing these rates for the 1995-96 candidates shows a shift in the pattern that can be seen in the previous four years (1991-92, 1992-93, 1993-94, and 1994-95 not shown). Prior to 1995-96, minority women had the highest success rate and nonminority men had the lowest. The 1994-95 comparison is most notable: 32.4 percent of the minority women candidates were successful, compared to 24.5 percent of minority men, 11.9 percent of nonminority women, and 9.7 percent of nonminority men. [For 1994-95, the minority women and minority men success rates are significantly different from both the nonminority women and nonminority men success rates (Chi-square test, P≤.01).] But for the 1995-96 group, minority men have the highest success rate (15.5%) and nonminority women have the lowest (8.8%), compared to the rates for minority women (14.7%) and nonminority men (10.7%). [For 1995-96, all rate differences are statistically insignificant (Chi-square test, P≤.05).] Again, in 1996-97, minority men have the highest success rate (13.3%), but nonminority men have the lowest (7.2%) as in earlier years, with the minority women rate (7.7%) just slightly higher and the nonminority women rate (9.4%) the second highest. In 1997-98, minority women have the lowest success rate (6.3%); nonminority women the highest (17.8%); minority men the next highest (13.9%); and then nonminority men (13.1%). In 1998-99, nonminority men have the lowest success rate (12.3%); minority men the highest (18.4%); nonminority women the next highest (15.3%); and then minority women (13.0%). In 1999-2000, as in the earlier years, minority women again have the highest rate (20.3%) and the other three groups have significantly lower rates, minority men (11.4%), nonminority women (11.6%), and nonminority men (11.7%). The 1999-2000 differences between the success rate of minority women and the success rates of the other groups are statistically significant (Chi-square test, P≤.05).
New Law Faculty Who Were Listed in the Faculty Appointments Register
The majority of successful Register candidates are hired as assistant and associate professors. Small percentages are hired as lecturers, instructors, and visiting professors. Table 8A shows that nearly half (46.7%) of the new assistant and associate professors hired over the past five years had been listed in the Faculty Appointments Register in the year before being hired. The percentage of the new assistant and associate professors that had been in the previous year’s Register had been rising up through 1995-96 (56.2%, not shown in table), but dropped to 48.7 percent in 1996-97, to 43.0 percent in 1997-98, and to 42.2 percent in 1998-99. This percentage rose sharply to 56.5 percent in 1999-2000, the highest percentage in the five-year comparison, but dropped back to 43.3 percent in 2000-01.
Table 8B shows that significantly higher percentages of the men hired as new assistant and associate professors had been listed in the Register. Over all five years, 54.0 percent of the men and 37.3 percent of the women had been Register candidates. This difference was relatively consistent over the five years. The 1999-2000 difference was relatively small, 52.7 percent of the women compared to 58.7 percent of the men, but the 2000-01 difference was the largest over the five-year period, 31.8 percent of the women compared to 54.0 percent of the men. The differences are statistically significant for 1996-97, 1998-99, 2000-01, and all five years combined (Chi-square test, P≤.05).
Table 8C shows that over all five years, nearly the same percentage of the new nonminority assistant and associate professors had been Register candidates (55.7%), compared to the new minority assistant and associate professors (54.7%). In 1997-98, the percentage of minority faculty listed in the previous register (70.6%) was significantly higher than for nonminority faculty (44.6%). But in 1998-99 the reverse is seen with only 30.6 percent of the new minority faculty and 64.4 percent of the new nonminority faculty having been listed in the previous Register. The 1997-98 and 1998-99 differences are statistically significant (Chi-square test, P≤.05). In 1999-2000 and 2000-01, the percentage differences are not statistically significant.
Table 8D shows the five-year comparison of new assistant and associate professors who had been Register candidates categorized by ethnic group. Over all five years, 80.8 percent of the new Asian/Pacific Islander faculty, 51.7 percent of the new Black faculty, 33.3 percent of the new Hispanic faculty, and 55.7 percent of the new White faculty had been Register candidates.
Comparing the new assistant and associate professors who had been Register candidates by minority/nonminority-gender group in Table 8E shows that the new nonminority men were most likely to have been Register candidates and minority men were almost as likely. Over all five years, 64.2 percent of the new assistant and associate professors who are nonminority men had been in the Register, compared to 64.1 percent of the minority men, 45.1 percent of the nonminority women, and 44.4 percent of the minority women.